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Monday, October 29, 2007

"What are we thinking about when we think about computers?"

"What are we thinking about when we think about computers?" (Turkle 47)


The tools we use to think change the ways in which we think. The invention of written language brought about a radical shift in how we process, organize, store, and transmit representations of the world. Although writing remains our primary information technology, today when we think about the impact of technology on our habits of mind, we think primarily of the computer.

Computers offer themselves as models of mind and as "objects to think with." They do this in several ways. There is, first of all, the world of computational theories. Some artificial intelligence researchers explicitly endeavor to build machines that model the human mind. Proponents of artificial life use computational processes capable of replication and evolution to redraw the boundaries of what counts as "alive".

And second, there is the world of computational objects themselves: everything from toys and games to simulation software and Internet connections. Such everyday objects of the computer culture influence thinking about self, life, and mind no less than the models of the computational philosophers. Computers in everyday life make possible a theoretical tinkering similar to what Claude Levi-Strauss (1968) described as bricolage- the process by which individuals and cultures use the objects around them to reconfigure the boundaries of their cognitive categories.

Here, examples of how engaging with a variety of computational objects like interfaces, virtual communities, and simulation games that provides material for reshowing categories of knowing, of identity, and of what is alive.


I. THINKING ABOUT KNOWING (THROUGH THE PRACTICE OF INTERFACES)


In the 1980s most computer users who spoke of transparency were referring to a transparency analogous to that of traditional machines, an ability to "open the hood" and poke around. But when, in the mid-1980s, Macintosh computer users began to talk about transparency, they were talking about seeing their documents and programs represented by attractive and easy-to-interpret icons. They were referring to an ability to make things work without needing to go below the screen surface.

This was, somewhat paradoxically, a kind of transparency enabled by complexity and opacity. As one user said, "The Mac looked perfect, finished. To install a program on my DOS machine, I had to fiddle with things. It clearly wasn't perfect. With the Mac, the system told me to stay on the surface." This is the kind of computer interface that has come to dominate the field; no longer associated only with the Macintosh, it is nearly universal in personal computing.

Today, the word "transparency" has taken on its Macintosh meaning in both computer talk and colloquial language. In our culture of simulation, when people say that something is transparent, they mean that they can easily see how to make it work. They don't mean that they know why it is working by reference to an underlying process.


2. THINKING ABOUT IDENTITY (THROUGH THE CREATION OF VIRTUAL PERSONAL)


In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the development of the windows metaphor for computer interfaces was a technical innovation motivated by the desire to get people working more efficiently by cycling through different applications, much as time-sharing computers cycled through the computing needs of different people. But in practice, windows have become a potent metaphor for thinking about the self as a multiple and distributed system. The self is no longer simply playing different roles in different settings, something that people experience when, for example, one wakes up as a lover, makes breakfast as a mother, and drives to work as a lawyer. The life practice of windows is of a distributed self that exists in many worlds and plays many roles at the same time. Now, in Doug's words, "RL" [real life] can be just "one more window."


3 . THINKING ABOUT ALIVENESS (BY PLAYING WITH COMPUTER TOYS)


The genius of Jean Piaget (1960) showed us the degree to which it is the business of childhood to take the objects in our world and use how they “work” to construct theories-of space, time, number, causality, life, and mind. In the mid-twentieth century, when Piaget was formulating his theories, a child's world was full of things that could be understood in simple, mechanical ways. A bicycle could be understood in terms of its pedals and gears, a windup car in terms of its clockwork springs. Children were able to take electronic devices such as basic radios and with some difficulty bring them into this "mechanical" system of understanding.

Since the end of the 1970s, however, with the introduction of electronic toys and games, the nature of many objects and how children understand them has changed. When children today remove the back of their computer toys to "see" how they work, they find a chip, a battery, and some wires. Sensing that trying to understand these objects "physically" will lead to a dead end, children try to use a "psychological" kind of understanding (Turkle 1984, 29-63). Children ask themselves if the games are conscious, if the games know, if they have feelings, and even if they "cheat." Earlier objects encouraged children to think in terms of a distinction between the world of psychology and the world of machines, but the computer does not. Its "opacity" encourages children to see computational objects as psychological machines.

Today's adults grew up in a psychological culture that equated the idea of a unitary self with psychological health, and in a scientific culture that taught that when a discipline achieves maturity, it has a unifying theory. When they find themselves cycling through varying perspectives on themselves as when they cycle through a sequence such as "I am my chemicals" to "I am my history" to "I am my genes", they usually become uncomfortable (Kramer 1993).

People who grew up in the world of the mechanical are more comfortable with a definition of what is alive that excludes all but the biological and resist shifting definitions of aliveness. So, when they meet ideas of artificial life which put the processes of replication and evolution rather than biology at the center of what is alive (Langton 1989) they tend to be resistant, even if intrigued. They feel as though they are being asked to make a theoretical choice against biology and for computational process. Children who have grown up with computational objects don't experience that dichotomy. They turn the dichotomy into a menu and cycle through its choices. Today's children have learned a lesson from their cyborg objects. They cycle through the cy-dough-plasm into juice and emergent conceptions of self and life.


Computer Film and Our Relationship to Computers


Surprisingly large numbers of people who have either worked as independent film artists, or who have developed in that area of liaison between art and technology which has evolved steadily during the last twenty years, have recently found themselves concerned in making computer films. On the following pages I have considered their work in its relationship to the field of computer art in general, to the computer film in all its existing aspects, and to the history of independent film art and abstract film.

What is interesting about all these techniques is that they are widely used in computer work in general, and are highly suited to the basic programming methods. Before continuing with the discussion of this aspect of computer art, it is important to note that the developments of more interactive, real-time computer, and near-computer, art have not made such wide use of these basic techniques, but have rather been concerned with the use, modification, transformation and translation of current events in the environment into new input to that environment in an interactive feedback loop. It would be possible to discuss basic and recurrent principles which are emerging from this kind of 'interactive' art but we will limit this treatment only to considerations which may have some bearing on the problems of computer film.

Computers are ideally suited to dealing with complex relationships of data precisely and very rapidly, and they are being developed towards highly efficient indexing and retrieval capability. Although the second of these functions will ultimately be of great significance to computer artists, in the immediate future they will find themselves restricted to more limited data, and have little useful call on larger data banks.

Another computer development of some significance is the more limited, computerised control of machinery to carry out processes previously dealt with at a time-consuming, manual level. Aspects of this general development will certainly affect the film computer artist, as well as the musician. Indeed, in the field of music, the computerised studio of Peter Zinovief in London goes a long way to providing this for music, and its structure could provide a useful model for the design of a computerised visual studio for the future.

As with computers in general, the bias of computer-film hardware and software development has been towards science, technology and business. In many ways it is even misleading to talk of the development of computer film hardware at all. Until recently the possibility of making movie film on a computer has barely been 'designed' for at all.

Films have mostly been made either by setting up a cine camera before a visual display tube, or by using a microfilm plotter, designed around the output of individual frames of static microfilm to produce consecutive animated frames. Many shortcomings of the film equipment available to artists can be put down to the relatively early stages of the technology and its slow development, but other limitations come about because the only point at which an artist has been consulted about the design is in the choice of shape and colour for the box and buttons.

Between the computer-controlled film 'process' camera, or animation rostrum, and the microfilm plotter lies a whole range of possible computer-film output machinery which has hardly begun to be thought about in a coherent way by film artists and computer technologists. Much thought is at present going into the design of the display processor so that it can operate in a more suitable way for visual output, and the whole analogue and mechanical aspects of the display tube and camera are under development. The direction which such developments take as well as the ever-present, and unavoidable economic factors, depends on the formulation of what kinds of output are to be needed, and it is important that the needs of the film artist are taken into account at an early stage.

Film the Science Fiction Portrayals

The Matrix

Science Fiction Film is a film genre that uses speculative, science-based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as extra-terrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, and time travel often along with technological elements such as futuristic spacecraft, robots, or other technologies. Science fiction films have often been used to provide social commentary on political or social issues, and to explore philosophical issues, such as "what makes us human." In many cases, tropes derived from written science fiction may be used by filmmakers ignorant of or at best indifferent to the standards of scientific plausibility and plot logic to which written science fiction is traditionally held.

The film The Matrix, produced since 1966 on an IBM grant, explores the possibilities available in a polar co-ordinate program developed for him by Dr Jack Citron. The images, although built up from dots, tend towards the linear mode which is common from the calligraphic terminal, and in spite of the relatively rapid pace of the animation, there seems to be a movement towards a greater austerity, the work being held within a set of fairly well-defined intentions. This tendency is continued in Matrix.

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, and Hugo Weaving. It was first released in the USA on March 31, 1999, and is the first entry in The Matrix series of films, comics, video games, and animation.

The film describes a future in which the world we know is actually the Matrix, a simulated reality created by sentient machines in order to pacify and subdue the human population while their body heat is used as an energy source. It contains numerous references to the cyberpunk and hacker subcultures; philosophical and religious ideas; and homeges to Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Hong Kong actions movies, Spaghetti Wesrtern and Japanese animation.

Matrix is in many ways the most advanced computer film produced by an artist to date. Unlike all the other work it does not use the computer simply as a convenient producer of abstract sequences of film for later manipulation.

In Matrix we see the development of these elements towards an articulate whole structure, which grows out of the program. There is still some later manipulation of the material, and though it is coloured by the same methods as in his other films, this is done with a great deal of restraint. What is important in this film is the way in which all the major developments and transitions are an integral part of the program. It begins to explore the area where the capacities of the computer can be used to expand our notions of film structure.

In the film, the code that comprises the Matrix itself is frequently represented as downward-flowing green characters. This code includes mirror images of half-width kana characters and Western Latin letters and numerals. In one scene, the pattern of trickling rain on a window being cleaned resembles this code. More generally, the film's production design placed a bias towards its distinctive green color for scenes set within the Matrix, whereas there is an emphasis on the color blue during the scenes set in the real world. In addition, grid-patterns were incorporated into the sets for scenes inside the Matrix, intended to convey the cold, logical, artificial nature of that environment.

The "digital rain" is strongly reminiscent of similar computer code in the film Ghost in the Shell, an acknowledged influence on the Matrix series. The linking of the color green to computers may have been intended to evoke the green tint of old monochrome computer monitors.

The Matrix received Oscars for film editing, sound effects editing, visual effects and sound. In 1999, it won Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film and Best Direction. The Matrix also received BAFTA awards for Best Sound and Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects, in addition to nominations in the cinematography, production design and editing categories.


Monday, October 8, 2007

Multimedia On The Web

EXERCISE CHAPTER 6:
1. A person handling another person an object (video)

2. Friends eating lunch together (video)



video


3. A person standing in front of a moving tank (video)

4. The sound of a monkey screaming (sound)

For this file i searched on yahoo again and put a sound format as the extension for example .wav. A website popped up which had many distinct animal sounds including that of monkeys. I found it at the youtube.com
video 5. The sound of a train whistle (sound) This was found in google by typing the search string, "sound effects train whistle". One website had many differnt sound effects and i was able to use that one.


6. A picture of giraffe (image)

This picture was found searching on google and yahoo pictures by entering the querry "giraffe" and clicking the images button. 7. A picture of plate of lasagna (image)

The method was the same as above and at the excite engine but instead the querry was "lasagna" 8. Someone speaking the number ''three'' (speech) This sound file was found on an internet spanish to english, english to spanish dictionary that gives you pronounciations for each word.

9. Someone saying ''I don't know'' (speech)
Here i put sound effects i dont know on the metasearch engine and one website had the file "male -i dont konw.wva"
10. Sport game (animation)
video 11. any interesting animation (animation)

animation movie Udin & Ipin

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Online Chatting??


What is chatting online? I know that online chat is a most popular around the world. It’s because, it is easy to communicate with someone else and get the feedback instantly. Today, we can hear more about Instant Messaging that the Internet user use like Yahoo Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, Meebo, AOL and so on. Do you have experience chatting with friends or somebody?? And.. What is e-mail?? Are you using e-mail? Share something about that....

Personally, online chatting means that communication through online or Internet that can make and allowed us to communicate with someone or others friends. That's means we can share a lot of informations, shared music, interest and so on that we can get with online chatting. In this situation, I prefer to choose Yahoo Messenger because I feel easy and comfortable using it. It because I can share more photo, music, movie and so on with my friends no matter where they are. So, it’s simply to me share anything to my friends.

Nowadays, there are many popular around the world using online chatting. Why?? It because same like me love to chatting and share something each others. There are many benefits that all users online chatting can get it. Let's we look about the benefits of using online chatting....

Firstly, the instant messaging offers real-time communication and allows easy collaboration, which might be considered more similar to genuine conversation than email's "letter" format. In contrast to e-mail, the parties know whether the peer is available. Most systems allow the user to set an online status or away message so peers are notified when the user is available, busy, or away from the computer.

On the other hand, people are not forced to reply immediately to incoming messages. For this reason, some people consider communication via instant messaging to be less intrusive than communication via phone. However, some systems allow the sending of messages to people not currently logged on (offline messages), thus removing much of the difference between IM and email.

Next, is instant messaging allows instantaneous communication between a number of parties simultaneously, by transmitting information quickly and efficiently, featuring immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply. In certain cases IM involves additional features, which make it even more popular, that is to see the other party. For example, by using web-cams, or to talk directly for free over the internet.

Then, it is possible to save a conversation for later reference. Instant messages are typically logged in a local message history which closes the gap to the persistent nature of e-mails and facilitates quick exchange of information like URLs or document snippets (which can be unwieldy when communicated via telephone).

Ok, let’s we gone through to the email. Email? What is email? Actually, email come from two words 'electronic' and 'mail' and can be considered the electronic version of the letter. So, today we can see that the people around the world would like to used it and it's also become popular services on the Internet.

Beside that, email also will enables messages to be transferred from an individual to another individual or from an individual to a group of people. They are many advantages that we can get by using the email such as we can attached any document like audio, video, picture and so on through email messages and sent it. Email can be sent to anywhere in the world and viewed whenever the recipient logs onto the Internet and checks their 'mailbox' where emails stored.


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>>>>>> Senyuman Itu Lukisan Rahsia Hati<<<<<<<



Online chat can refer to any kind of communication over Internet, but is primarily meant to refer to direct one-on-one chat or text-based group chat (formally also known as synchronous conferencing), using tools such as instant messaging applications—computer programs, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and possibly MUDs, MUCKs, MUSHes and MOOes.

While many of the Internet's well-known services offer online chat and messaging services for free, an increasing number of providers are beginning to show strong revenue streams from for-pay services. Again it is the adult service providers, profiting from the advent of reliable and high-speed broadband, (notably across Eastern Europe) who are at the forefront of the for-pay online chat revolution.

For every business traveller engaging in a video call or conference call rather than braving the check-in queue, there are countless web users replacing traditional conversational means with online chat and messaging. Like email, which has reduced the need for and usage of letters, faxes, and memos, online chat is steadily replacing telephony as the means of office and home communication. The early adopters in these areas are undoubtedly teenage users of instant messaging. It might not be long before SMS text messaging usage declines as mobile handsets provide the technology for online chat.

Instant Messaging (IM)

Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers connected over a network such as the Internet.

Instant messaging requires an instant messaging client that connects to an instant messaging service. Instant messaging differs from e-mail in that conversations happen in real-time. A multiprotocol instant messaging application allows one client to connect to multiple IM networks.

Instant messaging services owe many ideas to an older and still popular online chat medium named Internet Relay Chat (IRC). In early instant messaging programs, each letter appeared when it was typed, and when letters were deleted to correct typos this was also seen in real time. This made it more like a telephone conversation than exchanging letters. In modern instant messaging programs, the other party in the conversation generally only sees each line of text right after a new line is started. Most instant messaging applications also include the ability to set a status message, roughly analogous to the message on a telephone answering machine.



Example;


Meebo is an in-browser instant messaging program which supports multiple IM services, including Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, Google Talk, AIM, ICQ, and Jabber and is based on the open source library libpurple created by the software developers of Pidgin.









Yahoo! Messenger is a popular advertisement-supported instant messaging client and associated protocol provided by Yahoo!. Yahoo! Messenger is provided free of charge and can be downloaded and used with a generic "Yahoo! ID" which also allows access to other Yahoo! services, such as Yahoo! Mail, where users can be automatically notified when they receive new email. Yahoo! also offers PC-PC, PC-Phone and Phone-to-PC service, file transfers, webcam hosting, text messaging service, and chat rooms in various categories.

In addition to instant messaging features similar to those offered by ICQ, it also offers (on Microsoft Windows) features such as: IMVironments (customizing the look of Instant Message windows, some of which include authorized themes of famous cartoons such as Garfield or Dilbert), address-book integration and Custom Status Messages. It was also the first major IM client to feature BUZZing and music-status. Another recently added feature is customized avatars.



Windows Live Messenger (WLM), still commonly referred to by the previous name of MSN Messenger (MSN for short), is an instant messaging client for Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows Mobile, first released on December 13, 2005 by Microsoft. It is part of Microsoft's Windows Live set of online services. The current version is Windows Live Messenger 8.1, which was released on January 29, 2007. Version 8.5 Beta was released on May 31, 2007.

"MSN Messenger" (or often just "MSN") is often also used to refer to the Microsoft Network (the protocols and servers that allow the system to operate), rather than any particular client. Corporations can also integrate their Live Communication Server and Active Directory with the network on behalf of its clients. Most major multi-protocol clients can also connect to the service.


Email

E-mail (short for electronic mail; often also abbreviated as e-mail, email or simply mail) is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. The term "e-mail" (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to X.400 systems, and to intranet systems allowing users within one organization to e-mail each other. Often these workgroup collaboration organizations may use the Internet protocols or X.400 protocols for internal e-mail service. E-mail is often used to deliver bulk unsolicited messages, or "spam", but filter programs exist which can automatically delete some or most of these, depending on the situation.



The diagram shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when Alice composes a message using her mail user agent (MUA). She types in, or selects from an address book, the e-mail address of her correspondent. She hits the "send" button.

1. Her MUA formats the message in Internet e-mail format and uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send the message to the local mail transfer agent (MTA), in this case smtp.a.org, run by Alice's Internet Service Provider (ISP).

2. The MTA looks at the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol (not from the message header), in this case bob@b.org. An Internet e-mail address is a string of the form localpart@exampledomain.com, which is known as a Fully Qualified Domain Address (FQDA). The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name. The MTA looks up this domain name in the Domain Name System to find the mail exchange servers accepting messages for that domain.

3. The DNS server for the b.org domain, ns.b.org, responds with an MX record listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a server run by Bob's ISP.

4. smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP, which delivers it to the mailbox of the user bob.

5. Bob presses the "get mail" button in his MUA, which picks up the message using the Post Office Protocol (POP3).


Thursday, September 13, 2007

relax's beb!!: hellooo...

relax's beb!!: hellooo...

hellooo...




hai... just for introduction.... let's share something about how to control our pressure as a student's or working people..


The amount of force that presses on a certain area is known as pressure. The pressure on the surface will increase if you make the force on an area bigger. Making the area smaller and keeping the force the same also increase the pressure.



here, i show u the information about pressure...


Pressure on students causes social problems
(Xinhua)
Updated: 2004-04-10 21:58

A recent campus serial murder, hyped up by the media into an event in China, has aroused concern about psychological pressure on college students in the country.

The manslayer, named Ma Jiajue and a former life science major at Yunnan University in the southwestern province, was described by some media as a hardworking, poor student with fragile self-esteem and warped mentality, which were subtly implied by the media as main factors behind the crime.

Psychological concerns triggered by the event have been echoed by a series of campus suicides.

A college girl in Hebei province, north China, jumped recently from the 12th story of a building to commit suicide. In her suicide note, she said that emotional pain due to poverty and accidental misfortune were unbearable to her and she felt death was the only option to end the pain.

It is reported that in late March a student from the Law Department of Beijing University hanged himself from a tree at Fragrance Hill in the suburbs of the national capital, and another college girl committed suicide in the same manner at her own dormitory.

Sociologists estimate that approximately 100 college students killed themselves in each of the past few years. The top three causes of the deaths were failing examinations, difficulties in paying tuition and disappointment in love.

Meanwhile, psychological pressures also came from job hunting, acute competition for post-graduate education and love affairs, the sociologists note.

The growing number of college graduates is aggravating competition in the domestic labor market. This summer the number will reach about 2.8 million, as against 2.1 million last year, when only 70 percent of them found jobs, according to the Ministry of Labor and Social Security.

"It seems that I would flare up and be driven to violence as soon as I saw a person wearing a smile," said a student surnamed Zhang at the prestigious Hebei University of Science and Technology based in Shijiazhuang, capital city of north China's Hebei province. He said he had attended four interviews at a human resources exchange fair in the city but failed to find an appropriate job opportunity.

Zhang was far from unique among his schoolmates. The ridiculous hostile mentality stemmed from the anxious or depressive illness of the job hunters who had just finished a dozen years of hard learning, according to a counselor with the Psychiatry Department of the No. 1 Hospital affiliated to the Hebei Medical University.

At present, most of the institutions of higher learning on the Chinese mainland concentrate on providing employment information for graduating students, says a counselor from a mental healthcare center for college students in Shijiazhuang. She believes that it is imperative to help the students to build a proper, healthy mindset before they enter society.

As more jobs require higher academic degrees in China, more graduate college students are thronging into the competition for master's degrees.

The acute competition imposed high pressure on the college students, and some of them depicted their feelings waiting for the outcome of the entry exams for higher education as "being tormented mentally".

The psychological vulnerability has prompted an increasing number of college students to turn to mental health-care services for help.

In 2001, a group of psychologists good at in college student problems sponsored a psychological counseling committee to train campus counselors in Hebei province.

One year later, a research council of college mental healthcare was founded jointly by 40-strong colleges and universities in the province at Hebei University, with the provincial education bureaua the major sponsor.

With the help of the council, a well-equipped psychological counseling center has been set up at the same university, and opened two service hot lines, helping more than 200 students every year.

Identical services were launched earlier in some southern cities. The municipal education authority of Shanghai has worked out a detailed plan for the development of psychological counseling in the city, aiming to provide at least one counselor for every 1,000 college students by the year 2005.

Meanwhile, the provincial education bureau of Yunnan has recently arranged a survey of psychological health care for college students and demanded every institution of higher learning in the province set up mental healthcare files for their freshmen.





Smart People Choke Under Pressure

By Bjorn Carey, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 09 February, 2005 7:00 a.m. ET


People perceived as the most likely to succeed might also be the most likely to crumble under pressure.

A new study finds that individuals with high working-memory capacity, which normally allows them to excel, crack under pressure and do worse on simple exams than when allowed to work with no constraints. Those with less capacity score low, too, but they tend not to be affected by pressure.

"The pressure causes verbal worries, like 'Oh no, I can't screw up,'" said Sian Beilock, assistant professor of psychology at Miami University of Ohio. "These thoughts reside in the working memory." And that takes up space that would otherwise be pondering the task at hand.

"When they begin to worry, then they're in trouble," Beilock told LiveScience. "People with lower working-memory capacities are not using that capacity to begin with, so they're not affected by pressure."

The findings are detailed this week's issue of Psychological Science.

Working memory, also known as short-term memory, holds information that is relevant to performance and ensures task focus. It's what allows us to remember and retrieve information from an early step of a long task, such as long-division math.

"In these math problems students have to perform subtraction and division, and if you're trying to hold information in your memory and you start worrying about performance, then you can't use your entire mental capacity to do the math," Beilock explained.

The study analyzed 93 undergraduate students from Michigan State University to determine their working-memory capacities. The students were divided into two groups, a high working-memory group (HWM) and a low working-memory group (LWM). Each person was given a 24-problem math test in a low-pressure environment. The HWM group did substantially better.

Then the two groups were given the same test, but were told that they were part of a "team effort" and an improved score would earn the team a cash reward. They were also told their performance was being evaluated by math professors.

Under this higher, real world pressure situation, the HWM group's score dropped to that of the LWM group, which was not affected by the increased pressure.

Since working memory is known to predict many higher-level brain functions, the research calls into question the ability of high-pressure tests such as the SAT, GRE, LSAT, and MCAT to accurately gauge who will succeed in future academic endeavors.






 
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>>>>>> Senyuman Itu Lukisan Rahsia Hati<<<<<<<